Romania Car Hire The Best Car Rental Services Providers

Strangely overlooked as a tourist destination, Romania is one of the few countries of the old continent that is still able to offer to those who visit authentic scenarios, virgin landscapes, the beauty of nature decantabile difficult to put into words. And while Bucharest is talked about as a cultural center, a treasure trove of treasures from across the country, Bacau, Baia Mare, Cluj-Napoca and other centers around the countryside have an authenticity that really leaves you breathless.

Other enclaves must-see during a trip to Romania is the fortified town of Sighisoara, characterized by its romantic atmosphere. It is a pleasure to walk the streets of the Upper Town, where you can see the Clock Tower, the birthplace of Vlad Tepes, the Church of the Hill and the nearby Church of Biertan and the pleasant forests, meadows and lakes around the area. It also highlights the nearby Sibiu, with its beautiful medieval, baroque palaces like Brukenthal, the Franciscan Church, the House Venetian Gothic towers and several. East of Romania is the university city of Timisoara, fabulous Orthodox Cathedral, and to the northwest, Bukovina, a region dotted with monasteries of the XV and XVI are set in bucolic landscapes and magnificent frescoes preserved, like Vorone , known as the Sistine Chapel of the East.

The Romanian coast also holds pleasant surprises, since after traversing eight European countries, the Danube River ends its journey here, creating a huge delta that is divided into three main arms before joining its waters to the Dead Sea. Another of the great attractions of the coast is home to major resorts and spas who enjoy trips to Romania, is the Greco-Byzantine port of Constanta.

Romanian cuisine has influences Baltic and Hungarian. Among the most traditional dishes of burta ciorba-thick broth with beef tripe and meat, yogurt, eggs, spices, garlic, vinegar and chilli-the-mamaliga corn mash widely consumed by the peasants, the sarmales meat-balls in cabbage leaves with creamy polenta and milk-the-micis beef rolls with garlic and cumin-grilled, cu fasole Costita-bean stew with smoked pork ribs-and salata vinete-eggplant salad with peppers, olives and chilli. Among the most typical desserts are the coliva-cooked cereals with sugar and nuts-and-cake filling cozonac nuts. Regarding drinks, local beer and wine are popular and one of the proposals is Tuica a plum brandy.

The right way to visit Romania? At the wheel of a rental car, and if you have already booked airline tickets to Romania, the good news soon followed. Yes, because since the arrival at the international airport in Bucharest you’ll have the ability to choose the right car, among the countless low cost car and long-term, where the choice is vast and offers are advantageous. Romaniacarrentals.com offers services at the airport and at major tourist destination. You may Visit Romaniacarrentals.com , where the offers are valid and the choice is great. Either way, you’ll want to rent your car in advance on the internet.

You need a car to travel in Romania.And If you are looking for a cheap car hire. Romaniacarrentals.com is best options for a cheap and reliable car in Romania. When you booked car from Romaniacarrentals.co, they offers all important services includes: unlimited mileage, fully comprehensive insurance in case of damage including damage to the glass roof, tires and underbody, automobile theft insurance with no deductible, liability coverage.

Wind Turbines And The Direction Of Renewable Energy

Wind turbines are popping up all over the world. It is not unusual to find single windmills or acres of wind turbines creating clean energy these days. This energy producing alternative is costly to install, but very effective in reducing the price of energy for consumers over time.

This type of natural power is clean energy, but what exactly does that mean? Wind turbines do not rely on fossil fuels or natural gas to produce energy and therefore do not deplete the earth of its natural resources. This power can be directly acquired from the country in which it is generated, cutting importing costs and further reducing prices for the consumer.

The economic growth of the industry also lies in the manufacture of the windmills themselves. The more in demand they are, the more economic and employment growth will develop. This growth not only depends on building the actual windmills, but also on manufacturing the batteries, capacitors, and cables which store and transmit the energy accumulated by these rotating giants.

It has been predicted that by the year 2030, many of these wind farms will be set offshore. The huge turbines would almost not be seen above water, but the power they would produce could be immense. This is a first of its kind innovation and is reported to be somewhat stalled in the bureaucratic phase for the time being.

Batteries will ensure that the turbines will continue to move even when the force of the wind is significantly reduced. By contrast, the East Coast wind farms will probably never suffer from a lack of power source. These farms will be highly productive and the predicted outlook is excellent for the immediate future and long-term future.

Huge offshore cables, called “spines”, are buried in shallow trenches under the sea to transport the collected energy to the mainland. Initial reports indicate that this development could possibly produce enough energy to sufficiently power the entire Eastern seaboard. The cable is being laid now, even before the windmills are planted.

The amount of energy created by these offshore farms is predicted to significantly reduce the load of the current energy grid in the Northeastern US. The cost of this project is said to be in the high multi-billion dollar range, which is causing some delay. There are other significant factors, however, which are also delaying the progress of this project.

Fishermen make their living off the North American eastern coast and studies are being conducted regarding the reconciliation of the two industries. Another problem being faced is the fact that there are sacred burial grounds submerged in the sea there, which should not be disturbed. A third hindrance is the assumption by special interests groups that this development will destroy the beautiful view off the East Coast, who are lobbying to stop the project.

Wind turbines are one of the safest and cleanest means of generating energy, providing economic growth and reducing the load on the current energy grid. Along with solar power and thermal heat, it is a viable and sustainable solution to our energy crisis. There is significant growth in the wind-turbine industry all around the globe. There are many online sites with information regarding the direction in which renewable energy efforts are headed for the immediate and long-range future.

Franchising Business Commercial Franchise Lawyers

Franchising Business Commercial Franchise Lawyers – We have all heard of the term, and most of us know people involved in it. After all, it now contributes more than 10 billion to the UK economy, across numerous business sectors. But what is it really all about, and how are some businesses so successful at it, whilst for others it brings disaster?
The concept is fairly simple. In a franchise, an established business (the franchisor) grants someone (the franchisee) the right to trade under the franchisors trade mark or trade name.
Most franchising is actually business format franchising. This means that the franchisor develops a business concept, including a trade name and operating methods, and they train the franchisee in how to run their business using this concept. The franchisee operates his/her own business under the franchisors name and under some fairly tight controls and guidance. These are set out in a franchise agreement, and usually an operations manual as well.
At heart, a franchise agreement is essentially a trade mark licence, with a number of operational instructions and controls placed on the franchisee.
In many cases, the franchisee is given an exclusive territory in which to operate during the term of the franchise agreement.
For franchisors, franchising can therefore be an exceptionally quick route to business growth, with low overheads and low risk. We will look at this in more detail later on in this article. For franchisees, franchising can provide an attractive opportunity to own and operate their own business, but one which has a proven business concept and which provides training and support. Franchising can in some cases also provide a very rare opportunity for genuine work/life balance.
Sadly however, as with everything in life, it is not always that simple. Although survival rates for franchisee businesses are much higher than for other business start-ups, franchisees all too often fail. Some lose substantial amounts of money, often through no fault of their own. Below are some of the perils to avoid:
Peril No. 1 – Not doing enough homework before handing over your cash
Most franchisors can talk a good talk. It is their job to convince you that their franchise offering will bring you wealth and success. However, whilst many franchisors are scrupulously honest and professional in their dealings with prospective franchisees, some of them are unfortunately not.
Remember when you take on a franchise this is a business to business agreement. There is no consumer law to protect you, so your legal remedies may be very limited. It is your responsibility to check out what you are being told, and never to take promises and forecasts on face value.
It pays to remember the age-old saying: If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is!
Membership of the British Franchise Association – requiring the signing of a charter for ethical franchising – is a good indicator of an opportunity worthy of consideration, although there is no substitute for properly checking out and researching a franchise.
Peril No. 2 Taking on a franchise which does not play to your personal strengths
You need to think long and hard about whether taking on a franchise will suit your personality and skills. You may imagine, for example, during a frustrating day at the office, that nothing would be lovelier than leaving the rat-race and running your own cafe. But beware of the grass is greener over the fence philosophy. No matter what franchise you take on, it is likely to involve hard work, and this will never be satisfying unless it is something that you are passionate about.

Poland’s Road Construction Sector Thrives On Ample Funding

Demand for information about changes in store for this sector is rising, and Road construction sector in Poland 2011, Development forecasts for 2011-2014 meets that demand.

“The report presents the current and forecasted trends, both for the road construction market as a whole, and its individual segments, i.e. national, regional and local government road construction. The report focuses mainly on forecasts for the market in the coming years, taking into account macroeconomic forecasts, the volume of planned investment, and funding possibilities for the planned projects. An important section of the report is the profiles of top ten road contractors in Poland, accompanied by the analysis of their current situation and strategies for the next years.”

In order to locate and capitalize on new construction opportunities as they arise, you need direct access to the latest news, sharpest analysis, most reliable statistics and knowledgeable forecasting available. Read Road construction sector in Poland 2011, Development forecasts for 2011-2014 today, and refer to this new report from PMR on a regular basis as you monitor market expansion and contemplate new business strategies.

This 7th edition document examines the various sources of investment fueling the road construction sector, making it the largest segment of Poland’s construction market. It considers how investment levels will combine with macroeconomic data to influence market growth over the next three years. It provides extensive analysis of the roads sector as a whole, and then breaks down the various segments, including: national as compared to local road construction, road construction as opposed to engineering projects, asphalt compared to concrete roads completed, public projects versus private/public partnership investments and new road construction projects as opposed to repair of existing roadways.

The largest road construction projects (over PLN50m) planned for the coming years are listed, compared and examined in detail, and the country’s top ten construction companies are profiled in terms of project value and future strategy, and their most recent financial information is provided. The report features a map of recently completed projects and their contractors, along with summaries of planned investments and complete SWOT analysis for the entire construction market.

While preparing Road construction sector in Poland 2011, Development forecasts for 2011-2014, PMR’s expert analysts have thoroughly researched all salient aspects of the market, consulted their most reliable sources and created a market guide that answers the questions of readers on all major issues with regard to both the current status and future progression of this dynamic marketplace.

How to Use Text Messaging to Promote Your Business

Text messaging is not just for teenagers anymore. Savvy business owners recognize that text messaging also aids in the promotion of their business. Mobile devices have redefined most peoples lives. At last count, 91% of Americans have a mobile device. Each month 150 billion text messages are sent, and 90% of them are read within 1 hour of receipt. When was the last time you didnt read a text message that was sent to you? Are your customers any different?

Text messaging is now a major form of communication. It is actually a preferred method for some. Businesses that know how to incorporate text messaging into their marketing plans have an edge over those who dont. Think of when you read your postal mail. Do you read every ad you receive? Probably not. But do you at least read every text message that comes across your phone? Most likely you do.

Imagine being able to cut through all the clutter and reach your prospect or customer on the device they keep with them all the timein their pockets and purses, in their cars, at their desks or even on their night stands?

Your text messages, delivered thoughtfully and strategically, could turn a slow night into standing room only. Or they could turn a slow month into record setting profits. Here are some examples of how text messages could be employed in various industries:

Real Estate: Broadcast new listings in the area

Restaurant/Bar: Publish drink specials

Nightclub: Announce the band playing this Friday night

Pizzeria: Send out coupon codes for online ordering

Personal Trainer: Post motivational messages

Hair Salon/Spa: Announce new openings due to cancellations

Dentist: Remind patients for their six-month checkup

These are just a few examples of how you can stay connected with your customers by using text messaging. Mobile marketing options are only limited by your imagination and understanding of your customer base. Think about your average customer. What do you want to tell them about your business? What message will send them running through your door? Once you figure that out, then you just need to setup your campaign. Determine how to entice your customers to sign-up. Also, make sure you give them an easy way to unsubscribe if they change their mind.

I hope that these few suggestions help you use text messaging to promote your business, and I look forward to providing you more tips to help build your online business.

Retail Business Phone Systems What Features To Look For

With retail business phone systems, there are certain phone system features you will find invaluable. There are a plethora of choices available today, but the key is to figure out what you want and then have those features included at no extra charge. What you should look for in systems for retail businesses are those that offer the most value based upon your particular needs.

Your own needs will determine what features are best for you, but these phone system features will:

Save you time

Increase revenue, and

Facilitate and help maintain customer relationships

Regardless of your situation, business phones exist to help you run your business most effectively no matter how big or small you may be. Here are just a few features you may want to consider:

Voicemail

Voicemail lets you capture messages from customers even if it’s after business hours. You can call customers back once you are open again, and you won’t lose business simply because you weren’t there to take the call. The best voicemail systems, by the way, have at least six or more channels included in them. This gives you the flexibility to add more phone lines and extensions as you need to, without compromising efficiency.

A subset of voicemail capability is the ability to have voicemail message handling be streamlined, too. The most advanced systems will give users the ability to access voicemail with just a single key touch or simple phone code, for easy retrieval. Caller ID (see below) and message length are also sometimes included with certain systems as part of voicemail capability.

Caller ID

Caller ID does more than identify the caller who is on the line. It also gives you the capability to instantly call people back when they call you, even if they don’t leave a message, an important feature of retail business phone systems. Caller ID works, by the way, even if you forward the message to another extension or to your cell phone.

Call forwarding

It may be important to have the ability to take calls even when you’re out of the office, and that’s where call forwarding comes in. With a call forwarding feature, you can forward calls that would normally go to the office to any phone — even your cell phone — so that you can receive those important calls even when you have to be out of the office. At the end of the day or if you have to be home for whatever reason during the day, if you wish, you can have calls from the office forwarded to your home so that it’s “business as usual” even if you can’t be in the office. This is another important (and often essential) feature for retail business phone systems.

Voice over IP capability

Increasingly, voice over IP, or VoIP, capability is an important alternative to traditional phone systems. Cost effective and flexible, voice over IP capability gives you access to phone system features you may not otherwise have with traditional phone systems; you can use the Internet instead of traditional phone lines for both office to office connections and to support flexible communication options in a variety of mediums, such as via cell phone.

Now you know what features to look for to keep your small business connected!

Inspection And Testing To Ensure The Quality Of Finish Product In Construction Works

Top quality assurance in construction activities is obtained via the execution of Inspection and test plans (ITPs). ITPs are designed for each and every construction activity depending on the technical specs necessary for such activity.

The actual Objective of Inspection and Testing Plan

An Inspection and Test Strategy (ITP) is an essential component within a QA system within a construction project. It is a document that defines and records all inspection and testing needs of any certain construction activity or procedure. As an example, in a construction project it may be either a construction activity or perhaps a specific component of work or possibly a trade or possibly a production work.

Particularly, ITP defines:

The construction activities and related work practices, work items and materials to become inspected or tested,
Who is accountable for inspection and testing and at what stage and the frequency of inspection and testing must be carried out;
Hold and Witness Points (a point or stage beyond which work activity ought to not proceed with out the approval in the client or the clients representatives)
Applicable requirements, acceptance benchmarks and the records to be maintained;

The reason why an ITP is needed in Construction?

Typically the Inspection and Testing Plan (ITP) may be the principal document that essentially controls the top quality of all activities and operations in any construction project. ITPs must not just be accepted by all parties involved within the project but additionally must be introduced at the inception from the construction project.

The actual ITP should address the following:

Exactly what are the quality targets to become achieved in terms of technical and contract specifications (or conditions) of the construction project;
Who will likely be accountable for inspection and testing and their responsibilities in terms of the contract
Exactly what are techniques, procedures and any other instructions to become employed in the course of inspection and testing
Methods and frequency of inspections, testing and criteria of conformance
How can you amend or revise (or procedures) the ITP to suit the altering situations during the progress of the project?
How to conform to inspection check lists ready for every construction activity?

Who’s Responsible for ITP?

Typically the primary Contractor is accountable for preparation and implementation of ITP for any construction project. Preferably, the Contractor must ensure that his sub-contractors prepare the required inspection and testing strategy for the work activities and processes performed by them. Nevertheless, one ought to note that the general responsibility for ITP lies with all the principal contractor.

Actions Involved with verifying ITPs for a Construction Project/Contract

1.Study the contract documents and the technical specifications.
2.Prepare a list of queries related with missing data, any ambiguities or discrepancies associated with applicable requirements of supplies and workmanship.
3.Consult your customer or the clients representatives and make an effort to resolve the issues identified in item 2.
4.Identify the construction activities that require ITPs and checklists.
5.Identify the Hold and Witness Points as specified inside the contract document and by the client.
6.Evaluate the contract clauses that have considerable influence on top quality and workmanship specifications. Here, you’ll need to assess the consequence on the progress from the project owing to non-compliance or non-conformity of top quality on an activity. At this stage, it is crucial to include relevant data pertaining to tests, high quality standards when submitting ITP for Clients approval.
7.Finalize the checklists after reviewing it with all of the parties involved inside the relevant activities. The suggestions and also the inputs given by the knowledgeable staff (and lessons learned on previous/similar construction functions) are essential for identifying the problems that could cause costly rectification and delays.
8.Finalize the ITP in line using the conditions stipulated in contract documents. Similarly the ITP must basically complement the Top quality Management Program or Quality Management System (ISO9001) if already in location.
9.Timely submission of ITP for each and every earmarked activity to Client. If any clients observations and feedback have to be considered and amended the ITP accordingly
10.Ensure that proper awareness of the ITP among the personnel directly involved on each ITP. This means, proper training and awareness and involvement of workers from the beginning of preparation of ITP are a must.
11.Confirm the procedures required for reporting of Witness and Hold Points towards the relevant responsible individual.

Contents of ITP:

Preparation of ITP s should consider the following:

The actual nature and complexity from the work or the construction activity ;
Whether there’s access for inspection and testing;
What will be the resulting consequences in case of failure:- expense of remedial or rectification work involved, impact on the progress, accessibility and how easily rectification could possibly be carried out, any disruption to adjacent buildings or structures, progressive damage to other components of the construction, safety of workers or public and availability of sufficient resources.
The frequency of inspection and testing will have to become decided in accordance with all the circumstances of contract as well as the kind of inspection and testing necessary for the activity. In essence, certain inspection and testing will likely be carried out making use of appropriate frequency and sampling or statistical strategies. This entails selection of suitable representative sampling for huge operates. Sampling size and frequency might be increases or decreased according to the evidence on conformity throughout the progress of construction activities.
Record keeping or documentary evidence is essential to conform that the quality of completed activity or the product meets the specifications from the contract. Hence, the records could be in the type of checklists, test reports, certificates of compliance or conformity, approvals and survey and statistical information.
Reference to applicable specifications, codes of practices and standards. For example, reference ought to be created to: Contract document, construction drawings, design calculations, technical specifications or procedures, authorized samples, regulatory requirements, and Australian & International standards, manufacturers specifications, and acceptance criteria.
The necessary inspection and test procedures for the activity. In order to have consistent and reliable test results, the procedures for inspection and testing and recording have to be clearly defined inside the ITP. For example:- identification of test areas, the batch number, frequency of sampling, the method on which the samples to be taken, method of testing, the qualification of personnel involved in testing, correct calibration of equipment and measuring equipment, the documentation and recording have to become covered under ITP procedures.
Whether the top management from the contractor has appointed key quality and testing representatives to carry out the inspection and testing as required by the contract.
Whether adequate resources such as manpower, laboratories, field measuring and testing equipment are provided.
Whether the ITPs are updated regularly in order to accommodate changes on clients or project requirements. In essence, the validity from the ITPs in relation towards the current needs.
Whether the contractor has the procedures (or plan) in location to monitoring, measurement, and analysis necessary to conform that the work is carried according to required specification, workmanship and high quality.

The details provided above reveal that inspection and testing is a important factor on any construction contract that assures quality finish item.

Here Are 3 Conversion Rate Optimization Benefits Your Online Business Cant Ignore

Although conversion rate optimization (CRO) is often confused with SEO (search engine optimization), the two services are quite different. SEO experts drive more traffic to your website in order to generate more sales. CRO experts, on the other hand, boost online sales from existing traffic sources by optimizing key website components, such as:

1. Copywriting on Key Landing and Sales Pages 2. Website Design 3. Layout of UI Features and Special Sales Tools 4. Website Programming 5. Marketing Funnel(s) 6. Shopping Cart/CMS/Core Site Platforms

But I get it: Who cares? After all, what Internet Marketing service out there doesnt promise to boost online sales? The real question is: What kind of return on investment can you expect from conversion rate optimization?

Because at the end of the day and if everyone is being brutally honest: Most Internet Marketing services produce absolutely appalling ROI. You are literally lucky to generate 3 dollars in revenue from every 1 dollar invested in SEO, PPC, or even social media marketing. So by the time you also take overhead, fulfillment costs, and labor into account: Most Internet Marketing services honestly dont move the needle in terms of the ROI they deliver for your online business. Conversion rate optimization, however, is a completely different beast.

Companies like Google, Apple, and even heat mapping sites like Crazy Egg are hiring CRO companies and boosting overall online conversions by up to 150% or more. And sure, those might be exceptional examples and not even close to what an average website owner could expect from hiring CRO experts. But with conversion rate optimization, you dont need to generate massive gains in the overall conversion rate to see a massive ROI or a dramatic boost in online profits. In fact, here are 3 bona-fide benefits of conversion rate optimization that no serious website owner can afford to ignore:

CRO Benefit #1: Permanently Increases Conversion Rate

You know why the ROI is so low for SEO, social media, or even content marketing? Because the minute you stop investing in new content, your traffic levels will quickly drop along with your sales. But one of the biggest conversion rate optimization benefits is the ability to continue driving new sales and increasing ROI for months, in some cases years, after the CRO experts have wrapped up the project. That means even modest gains in overall conversion rate will not only drive increased sales this month, but next month, and the month after that, and so on. By making permanent changes to your copywriting, web design, and other core website components, CRO experts optimize your website to generate more online sales and a growing ROI that far exceeds anything you can expect from traditional Internet Marketing services.

CRO Benefit #2: Increased Online Sales without Increasing Your Marketing Spend

You know the biggest problem with driving another $50,000 in online revenue from SEO, social media, or especially PPC advertising? The answer is the bane of every website owner reading these words because they know its quite simple: Because generating an additional $50k in online revenues might require an investment of $20k or more in PPC, SEO, or social media. And when you include overhead, what, if anything, is left over for all that hard work and investment?

Fly Ash Use in Agriculture A Perspective

INTRODUCTION Fly ash has a potential in agriculture and related applications. Physically Fly Ash occurs as very fine particles, having an average diameter of

INTRODUCTION Fly ash has a potential in agriculture and related applications. Physically Fly Ash occurs as very fine particles, having an average diameter of 25>

It was generally observed that both sandy and clayey soils tend to become loamy in texture (Capp 1978) in the U.S. the average silt content in fly ash is about 63.2% (Sharma et. al. 1989) but in India this content ranges from about 16% (IIT, Kharagpur) to 45% (UAS, Raichur).

Modification of bulk density The grain size distribution especially the silt size range of fly ash affects the bulk density of soil. Chang et. al. (1977) observed that among five soil types Reyes silty clay showed increase in bulk density from 0.89 to 1.01 when the corresponding rates of Fly Ash amendment increased from 0 to 100%. But soils with bulk densities varying between 1.25 and 1.60, a marked decrease in bulk density was observed by the addition of Fly Ash. Page et. al (1979, 1980) reported that Fly Ash amendment to a variety of agricultural soils tend to decrease the bulk density. Optimum bulk density in turn improves the soil porosity, the workability of the soil, the root penetration and the moisture retention capacity of the soil.

Water holding capacity of soil The application of Fly Ash has been found to increase the available water content of loamy sand soil by 120% and of a sandy soil by 67% (PAU, Ludhiana). RRL Bhopal reported that application of Fly Ash increase the porosity of Black Cotton Soil and decreases the porosity of sandy soils and thereby saves irrigation water around by 26% and 30% respectively. Chang et. al. (1977) reported that at an addition of 8% by weight Fly Ash, increased the water holding capacity of soil. They also reported that soil hydraulic conductivity improved at lower rates of Fly Ash application but deteriorated when the rate of Fly Ash amendment exceeded 20% in calcareous soils and 10% in acidic soils. This improvement in water holding capacity is beneficial to the plants especially under rainfed agriculture.

Soil pH In India most of the Fly Ash produced is alkaline in nature. Hence an application of these to agricultural soil increases the soil pH. This property of fly ash can be exploited to neutralize acidic soils (Elseewi et. al. 1978; Phung et. al. 1978). Jastrow et. al. (1979) reported that while addition of fly ash improves soil pH on one hand, it simultaneously adds essential plant nutrients to the soil on the other hand. Page et. al. (1979) observed that experiments with calcareous and acidic soils revealed that fly ash addition increased the pH of the former from 8.0 to 10.8 and that of the latter from 5.4 to 9.9. It has also been reported that the use of excessive quantities of fly ash to alter pH can cause increase in soil salinity especially with unweathered Fly Ash (Sharma et. al. 1989).

Some fly ashes are acidic which may be used for reclamation of alkaline soils. In one of the project sites of FAM at Phulpur, IFFCO has done some work on the reclamation of alkaline soils and observed that the pH of these soils could be brought to near neutral status using these acidic fly ashes.

Effect on soil crust

Fly ash application helps in reducing surface encrustation, which is a problem in red soils (CAS, Raichur). This effect in turn can enhance soil aeration and help in improvement of germination of plants grown on it.

Effect on growth and yield of crops

The positive impact of Fly Ash application on growth & yield of crops has been reported by various agencies. Some of which are given below: Regional Research Laboratory (RRL) Bhopal reported that on an average in comparison to control around 50-60% more yield of Brinjal, around 45% more yield of potato & pea, around 40% more yield of tomato and around 29% more yield of cabbage were recorded in Fly Ash treated plot when Fly Ash was applied @25% of soil. Punjab Agriculture University (PAU) observed that application of Fly Ash @10t/ha increased the yield of wheat from 21.5 q/ha to 24.1 q/ha and that of cotton from 1245 kg/ha to 1443 kg/ha. They have also been found that Fly Ash application @10% by weight increased the dry matter yield of moong from 3.80 gm to 7.36 gm and Fly ash addition from 0 to 80 t/ha increased the yield of paddy from 61.82 q/ha to 63.58 q/ha. College of Agriculture, Raichur observed that the yield of groundnut was increased from 24.1 q/ha to 31.9 q/ha with the application of fly ash @20 t/ha.

View of Groundnut Crop grown on fly ash treated soil at IIT-Kharagpur Forestry and Floriculture species on an Ash Pond (By TERI at BTPS Badarpur) Promising indications were obtained from the preliminary research findings (highlights of which have been given above). A need was felt for collection of a set of empirical data through scientifically designed trials using standard procedures and protocols in a coordinated manner at the national level on the benefits and possible adverse effect of fly ash application in agricultural fields. Fly Ash Mission (FAM) along with its associate agencies has taken up a large number of demonstrative trials (more than 50) at various sites at dispersed locations across the country under varied agro-climatic conditions on a spread of crops, forestry & horticulture species. These trials are being done with varied dose ranges based on the results of the part research experiences of respective centers at their sites. Even upto 100% ash bodies have been used to obtain the extreme effects. The tables 2 & 3, would provide a picture of the locations, plant types and soil types and fly ash dose ranges which have been covered under Fly Ash Mission projects.

Table 2: Field crops & vegetables projects undertaken by FAM S. No.SoilFly ash doses rangeCrops & No. of SitesLocationExecuted by 1Alluvial Soil0-200 t/haRice, wheat (2)Farakka CFRI, Dhanbad 2Alluvial Soil0-100 t/haMustard, jute (1)Farakka CFRI, Dhanbad 3Laterite Soil0-200 t/haRice (5), wheat (4)Bakreshwar CFRI, Dhanbad 4Laterite Soil0-100 t/haMustard, Potato, Lentil (1)Bakreshwar CFRI, Dhanbad 5Black Soil0-50 t/haSugarcaneChidambaramAnnamalai University 6Laterite Soil0-150 t/haGroundnutNeyveliAnnamalai University 7Laterite Soil0-100 t/haSugarcaneNeyveliAnnamalai University 8Black Soil0-150 t/haRice-Green Gram (1)SathamangalamAnnamalai University 9Black Soil0-120 t/haCotton-Rice (1)VellampudugaiAnnamalai University 10Lateritic Soil0-10 t/haRice-Groundnut (3)Kharagpur IIT-Kharagpur 11Lateritic Soil0-20 t/haRice, Groundnut-Mustard (1)KharagpurIIT-Kharagpur 12Lateritic Soil0-30 t/haMustard-Rice (1)KharagpurIIT-Kharagpur 13Lateritic Soil0-10 t/haRice (2)-Mustard, Groundnut, Potato (1)Balarampur, Gholghoria, BurariIIT-Kharagpur 14Lateritic Soil (Red)0-80 t/haSunflower-Groundnut (2)Raichur CAS, Raichur 15Black Soil0-80 t/haSunflower-Maize (2)Raichur CAS, Raichur 16Alluvial Soil0-650 t/haTomato (1), Cabbage (1), Potato (1), wheat (2), Pea (1)- Maize(6), Wheat-Maize (2)Dhodhar, Nilgiri, Rihand NagarRRL, Bhopal 17Alluvial Soil0-650 t/haSunflower (1), tomato (1), Potato (1), Wheat (1), Berseem (1), Red Gram (1), Maize (4), Rice (1)Nilgiri, Rihand NagarRRL, Bhopal 18Alluvial Soil0-40/0-80 t/haRice-Wheat (1), Cotton-Wheat (1), Sunflower-Maize (1), Wheat-Rice (1)Ropar, BhatindaPAU Ludhaina 19Alluvial Soil0-12 t/haWheatRopar (Astalpur)PAU Ludhaina 20Alluvial Soil100% ash body with 7.5 cm soil coverArhar-Wheat (1)BhatindaPAU Ludhaina 21Black Soil0-640 t/ha (Residual Effect)Wheat-Maize, Soyabean-Maize, Lemon Grass (1)SarniRRL, Bhopal 22Alluvial Soil0-640 t/haMaize-Onion, Rice-Sunflower (1)AngulRRL, Bhopal Table 3: Forestry, Land Reclamation projects undertaken by FAM S. No.Soil/Land TypeFly ash doses rangeTree Species & No. of Sites LocationExecuted by 1Laterite Soil0-240 t/haEucalyptus (1)Chaudwar, CuttakTCRDC, Patiala 2Laterite Soil0-24% of pit volume Eucalyptus, Acacia auriculiformis, Casurina equisetifolia, Acacia mangium (1)Durga Prasad, CuttackTCRDC, Patiala 3Alkali-Saline Eroded land ( in Arid Zone)0-20% v/wEucalyptus, Zizyphus, Jojoba (1)JaipurTERI, New Delhi 4Ash Pond-Melia azadirach, Delbergia Sisso, Eucalyptus sp., Populus deltoides(1)BadarpurTERI, New Delhi 5Low Fertile Soil1/3 Pit volumeCeiba pentandra, Melia azadirach, Cassia siamea, Erythrina indica, Cassia glauca, Bauhinia purpurea, Putranjiva ,Pongamia glabra ,Thevetia elifera (1)New Delhi TERI, New Delhi 6Usar 0-5%Rice, Wheat (1)DailapurIFFCO, Phulpur 7Usar 0-5%Rice ,mustard (1)TardihIFFCO, Phulpur 8Usar 0-5%Rice, Wheat (1)YakubpurIFFCO, Phulpur 9Usar 0-6%Rice, Wheat (1)PurisudiIFFCO, Phulpur 10Usar 0-6%Rice, Wheat (1)ParasinpurIFFCO, Phulpur 11Usar 0-6%Rice, Wheat (1)MobarukpurIFFCO, Phulpur 12Ash Pond-Rajnigandha ,Tagetus, Carnation, Palmarosa, Sunflower (1)Badarpur, New DelhiTERI, New Delhi Flyash for reclaiming saline alkaline soil – Rice Crop at IFFCI, Phulpur Flower at Ash Pond (by TERI at Badarpur) These trials have been scientifically designed to collect empirical data on effect of fly ash application on soil, plant and natural ground water near the application site. Indicative monitoring is being done of the soil, plant produce, macro & micro nutrient status including the trace & heavy metal status and also the changes in the natural radioactivity level (if any as a result of application of fly ash) on soil, plant and natural ground water near the trial site. The aspect of the nutritional quality of produce grown in fly ash treated soils if also being addressed in a special project by the National Institute of Nutrition. Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar is testing the samples of all FAM project sites for some heavy metals and radionucleide levels. More than 1000 samples have been tested so far. At most places the levels appear to be in the normal range. Highlights of the some the important findings from these trials are as follows: Effect on crop growth and yield:

In rice-groundnut cropping system, application of Fly ash @ 10 t/ha to both the crops increased grain yield of rice on an average by 14% and pod yield of groundnut by 26% over control (IIT-Kharagpur)

Application of Fly Ash @ 10 t/ha in combination with organic and inorganic sources either in one or both the seasons in rice-groundnut cropping system increased grain yield or rice and pod yield of groundnut significantly over application of only chemical fertilizer to both the crops (IIT-Kharagpur)

The treatment combination fly ash @ 10 t/ha alongwith Paper Factory Sludge (@ 15 t/ha) & chemical fertilizer (CF) applied to rice and only CF to potato increased grain yield of Rice and tuber yield of Potato significantly over CF applied to both crops in Rice-Potato cropping system. (IIT-Kharagpur)

In Rice – Mustard cropping system, application of Pond ash @ 10 t/ha in combination with organic and inorganic sources to rice and subsequent mustard with CF alone increased yield of rice by 13-15 % and seed yield by 15-18% as compared to the treatment of similar combination but without Pond Ash.(IIT-Kharagpur)

Use of Pond ash/Fly ash either in splits or as one time application along with organic and inorganic sources were equally effective in increasing grain yield of rice and seed yield of mustard, as compared to the treatment without Pond ash / Fly ash. (IIT-Kharagpur)

At College Of Agriculture -Raichur yield of Sunflower was increased by about 25% in red soil under rained as well as irrigated conditions when fly ash was applied @ 60T/ha along with 20t/ha FYM.

More than 70% increase in yield of groundnut was observed when fly ash was applied @ 30 t/ha along with FYM @ 20 t/ha at CAS Raichur.

The yield of maize also increased by about 35% of present when Fly Ash was applied @ 30 t/ha along with FYM @ 20 t/ha (CAS Raichur).

The performance efficiency of both dry fly ash and pond ash in respect of crop growth parameters (yield & improvement in physical and chemical properties of soil was found to be similar by CFRI, Dhanbad in their studies at Farakka & Bakeraswar). Best grain & straw yield of both paddy and wheat crops were observed 200 t/ha pond ash dose (20-40% increases were observed).

Paddy & Wheat crops grown with Fly Ash showed early maturing tendencies at Farakka

Annamalai University, in their trials found that the application of 100 t/ha of Lignite Fly Ash (LFA) did not adversely affect the germination of seeds of Rice, Green-gram, Groundnut, Sugarcane or Cotton. Satisfactory levels of germination were observed and these were found to be at par with those in control plots (where no Fly Ash/ Pond Ash was applied).

Annamalai University also reported yield increases due to LFA application in eight out of twelve of the field trials (with LFA application between 4-120 t/ha) showing a range of 8% to 36% increase in yield of produce (over control).

Significant yields increases were seen in 2nd and 3rd crop of Groundnut at 10t/ha LFA. Increasing the dose of LFA to 100 t/ha significantly increased pod yield in the first crop itself. (Annamalai University).

Effect on soil health:

In rice based cropping system, application of Fly ash/ Pond Ash @ 10 t/ha alongwith organic and inorganic sources wither in one season or in consecutive seasons improved physical properties of soil through decreasing its bulk density and increasing its water holding capacity and porosity (IIT-Kharagpur)

Being alkaline in nature, application of Fly ash/ Pond Ash @ 10 t/ha in combination with organic and inorganic sources increased pH of acid-latertic soil to a considerable extent (IIT-Kharagpur)

In rice based cropping system, repeat application of Fly Ash/ Pond Ash @ 10 t/ha in combination with organic and inorganic sources raised the fertility status of soil, as compared to the treatment of similar combination but without Fly ash/ Pond ash (IIT-Kharagpur)

In general, the available heavy metal status of soil decreased under Fly ash/ Pond Ash based treatments (IIT-Kharagpur)

Application of Fly ash/ Pond Ash increased soil dehydrogease activity, which was more discernible in aerobic condition than flooded/reduced soil condition (IIT-Kharagpur)

RRL, Bhopal (in the project site Dhodhar, Rihand Nagar) found that the nutrient availability was enhanced in soil where 25% coal ash was applied at one time and in those plots wherein addition to the 25% ash was made initially and 5% addition was made every year.

At CAS, Raichur pH & Electrical Conductivity of soil did not differ significantly due to application of different fly ash levels.

CAS, Raichur also found that the combined application of Fly Ash & FYM had a beneficial effect on the fertility status of soil the content of total lead, arsenic and selenium did not change significantly due to application of recommended dose(upto 60 t/ha) of Fly Ash. However, at higher rate of applications the contents of these toxic elements increased marginally.

CAS, Raichur found that the content of toxic elements was lesser in red soils as compared to black soils.

RRL, Bhopal in its trials at Nilgiri, Rihand Nagar (Land- fill site) found that the primary & secondary nutrients were increased in ash filled plots. The heavy metals like Co, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd where found to be below detectable limits.

CFRI, Dhanbad found that the application of alkaline Fly Ash (pH 8.3) helped in neutralizing the acidic red soil (pH 5.01) making it more productive and suitable for cultivation. It also helped in improving the utilisation efficiency of NPK fertilizer.

Annamalai University found hat application of Lignite Fly Ash in various soil types showed the following types of soil modifications: Neutralising soil pH Increasing EC Increasing available levels of potassium, sulphur and boron.

Effect on quality of yield and uptake of nutrients and toxic elements:

In rice based cropping system, application of Fly Ash/ Pond Ash @ 10 t/ha in combination with organic and inorganic sources increased the concentration of macronutrients (N, P, CA and Mg) in rice grain and edible part of the subsequent crops (groundnut, potato and mustard) as compared to the treatment of similar combination, but without Fly Ash/ Pond Ash (IIT-Kharagpur)

Decrease in heavy metal concentration in grain or edible part of the different crops under Fly Ash/ Pond Ash based treatment is due to dilution effect of these elements through increased grain/edible yield (IIT-Kharagpur)

Radionucleide levels in grain/edible part of rice, groundnut, potato and mustard varied under Fly Ash/ Pond Ash based treatments as compared to the treatments without it and indicated no adverse effect of Fly ash/ Pond Ash (IIT-Kharagpur).

The nutritional value of agricultural produce grown on ash-filled land-fill sites in terms of protein & carbohydrates were found to be comparable with the National Institute of Nutrition-Standards (RRL, Bhopal- trials at Nilgiri, Rihand Nagar)

Effect on ground water:

Application of Fly Ash/ Pond Ash in combination with organic and inorganic sources released lower quantity of Fe and Mn to ground water as compared to the treatment without Fly Ash/ Pond Ash (IIT-Kharagpur).

In ground water samples the level of 286Ra was decreased, 228Ac remained unchanged under Fly Ash/ Pond Ash based treatment as compared to the treatments without it, indicating poor leaching of radionucleide to ground water. Thereby the ground water quality due to application of Fly Ash/ Pond Ash remained unaffected with respect to radionucleide contamination (IIT-Kharagpur).

Other effects:

The crops grown under Fly Ash/ Pond Ash based treatment were observed to be resistant to disease, insect, and pest infestation as compared to the crops grown without Fly Ash/ Pond Ash (IIT-Kharagpur).

At Bakreshwar, in farmers’ field trials the farmers have observed that the crops grown in Fly Ash treated plots were relatively more resistant to pest attack in compared to those in control plots.

Farmers were enthused to take `groundnut’ crop in rabi using Fly Ash as compared to the traditional `boro rice’ crop at Kharagpur for a better `cost-benefit ratio’. Use of Fly Ash as a Mine Soil Amendment The physical effects of fly ash additions on soils were discussed earlier, but relatively high loading rates (> 100 tons per acre) are generally required to significantly influence soil physical properties such as water holding capacity and aggregation. In most instances, fly ash is added to soils primarily to affect chemical properties such as pH and fertility, and loading rates are limited by chemical effects in the treated soils. Plant growth on fly ash-amended soils is most often limited by nutrient deficiencies, excess soluble salts and phytotoxic B levels (Page et al., 1979; Adriano et al., 1980). Fly ash usually contains virtually no N and has little plant-available P. However, newer power plants may be adding ammonia as a flue gas conditioner to limit NOX emissions which may lead to some plant-available N. Application of fly ash to soil may cause P deficiency, even when the ash contains adequate amounts of P, because soil P forms insoluble complexes with the Fe and Al in more acidic ashes (Adriano et al., 1980) and similarly insoluble Ca-P complexes with Class C ashes. Amendment of K-deficient soil with fly ash increases plant K uptake, but the K in fly ash is apparently not as available as fertilizer K, possibly because the Ca and Mg in the fly ash inhibit K absorption by plants (Martens et al., 1970). In some cases, soils have been amended with fly ash in order to correct micronutrient deficiencies. Acidic-to-neutral fly ash has been found to correct soil Zn deficiencies, although alkaline fly ash amendment can induce Zn deficiency because Zn becomes less available with increasing pH (Schnappinger et al., 1975). Fly ash application has also been shown to correct B deficiencies in alfalfa (Plank and Martens, 1974). In some cases, plant yields after fly ash application have been reduced because of B toxicity (Martens et al., 1970; Adriano et al., 1978). Soil amendment with fly ash to alleviate B deficiencies should be carefully monitored in order to avoid B toxicity. Fly ash often contains high concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements. Plants growing on soils amended with fly ash have been shown to be enriched in elements such as As, Ba, B, Mo, Se, Sr, and V (Furr et al., 1977; Adriano et al., 1980). Although trace amounts of some of these elements are required for plant and animal nutrition, higher levels can be toxic. Highly phytotoxic elements often kill plants before the plants are able to accumulate large quantities of the element; which limits their transfer to grazing animals. Elements such as Se and Mo, however, are not particularly toxic to plants and may be concentrated in plant tissue at levels that cause toxicities in grazing animals. Soils amended with high rates of fly ash may accumulate enough Mo to potentially cause molybdenosis in cattle (Doran and Martens, 1972; Elseewi and Page, 1984). Finally, amendment of soil with fresh fly ash may increase soil salinity (reported as soluble salts or electrical conductance-EC) and associated levels of soluble Ca, Mg, Na, and B. Incorporation of 80 T/A unweathered fly ash from a Nevada power plant increased soil salinity 500 to 600% and also caused a significant increase in soluble B, Ca, and Mg (Page et al., 1979). Fly ash that has been allowed to weather and be leached by rainfall for several years generally has much lower soluble salt and soluble B concentrations and is more suitable for use as a soil amendment (Adriano et al., 1982). In general, ashes which have been wet-handled in the plant and stored in ponds will be much lower in soluble salts and B than dry-collected ashes. Use of Fly Ash in Acidic Spoil and Coal Refuse Revegetation Alkaline fly ash can aid in the reclamation of acidic spoils and refuse piles, although one-time ash applications do not appear to be effective in maintaining increased pH if pyrite oxidation is not completely stopped and neutralized. The pH of an extremely acidic surface mine soil and a coal refuse bank in West Virginia was initially raised to near neutral by application of high rates of alkaline (pH 11.9) fly ash. Soil pH dropped 1 to 2 units over the next two growing seasons, however, presumably because of continued pyrite oxidation in the spoils and leaching of Ca and Mg oxides from the fly ash (Adams et al., 1972). Jastrow et al. (1981) used fly ash as an alternative to lime in a greenhouse experiment involving acidic coal refuse. The initial pH of the refuse was 3.5. Amendment with fly ash raised the pH to 4.8, but it dropped to 4.2 by the end of one growing season. In another greenhouse experiment, the application of fly ash to extremely acidic coal refuse resulted in a higher pH and significantly increased barley yields (Taylor and Schumann, 1988). Boron toxicity has been observed in plants grown on fly ash-amended mine spoils, although in some cases toxicity symptoms were apparent but yields were not reduced (Adams et al., 1972; Keefer et al., 1979; Taylor and Schumann, 1988). Jastrow et al. (1981) implicated Mn, Zn, and V toxicity as possible factors in reduction of tall fescue yields on fly ash-amended coal refuse. Coal refuse often contains high levels of trace elements and fly ash application can raise the concentrations of these elements to toxic levels, especially if pH is not controlled. Return to Table of Contents Studies on possible negative effects of Fly Ash application Ground Water

Fly Ashes contain a small amount of trace and heavy metals which may percolate down and pollute ground water. The solubility of these elements is

At Central Fuel Research Institute (CFRI), Dhanbad it was observed that the quality of ground water did not change with the application of flyash and all the parameters including the trace and toxic metal contents were within the permissible limits. Some other research organisations also observed that Fly Ash has no significant polluting effect on ground water.

Uptake of heavy metals and toxic elements by plants

Fly Ash has ppm level concentration of heavy metals, when applied to soil these elements may get absorbed by plants grown on it which may ultimately enter into food chain. However, the absolute quantities of these elements in flyashes are low which may not result into negative effect. The data on trace element uptake and accumulation by plant are limiting. Despite fairly intensive research over the last 25 years, the data on trace element accumulation are rather sketchy and inconsistent. Boron in FLy Ash is readily available to plants and investigators consider B to be limiting factor in unweathered Fly Ash utilisation (Townsend and Gillham (1975); Elseewi et.al. 1978; Ciravolo and Adriano, 1979). RRL, Bhopal conducted a study regarding the uptake of heavy and trace metals by some vegetable crops and it was observed that the uptake is quite low and remains within the normal range.

Central Fuel Research Institute, Dhanbad observed that there is no significant differences in uptake of trace & heavy metal between control and Fly Ash treated plots. Although Fly Ash contain a moderate amount of trace and heavy metals, the uptake and accumulation of these by plants in very negligible.

Radionuclides

There have been several reports in the literature on the presence of radionuclides in Fly Ash but studies on their impact have been few (Coles et.al. 1978; Gowiak and Pacynas, 1980). The radiochemical pollution of Uranium and Thorium series is always present in Fly Ash (Eisenbud and Petrow 1964). The concentration of natural Uranium varies from 14 to 100 ppm although in exceptional cases it may be as high as 1500 ppm whereas that of Thorium is less than 10 ppm. The Fly Ash concentrates besides other gaseous and trace metal oxides, several radioactive contaminants like 222Ru & 220Ru (Sharma et.al. 1989). Bhaba Atomic Research Centre, Bombay is of the opinion that most of the Indian coals has very low levels of radioactivity which is well below the hazardous limit. Hence radioactivity of Fly Ash may not be a limiting factor for its application for agriculture purposes. Central Fuel Research Institute, Dhanbad observed that there is no significant uptake of radioactive elements by plants and also that there was negligible cumulative build up of these contaminants in soil when Fly Ash applied for agriculture purposes.

Conclusions: The potential of fly ash as a resource material in agriculture and related areas is now a well-established fact and more and more researchers and `users’ are getting convinced with its utility potential in this field. The major attribute, which makes Fly ash suitable for agriculture, is its texture and the fact that it contains almost all the essential plant nutrients except organic carbon and nitrogen. Although fly ash cannot substitute the need of chemical fertilizers or organic manure it can be used in combination with these (or in some cases may part substitute their requirement) to the to get additional benefits in terms of improvement in soil physical characteristics, increased yields etc. As in the case with fertilizers and any other agriculture input , the amount and method of fly ash application would vary with the type of soil, the crop to the grown, the prevailing agroclimatic condition and also the type of fly ash available. Although, fly ash has many benefits as an input material for agriculture applications, in view of the fear in the minds of many (regarding the levels of natural radioactivity in Fly Ash and/ the characteristic presence of some amounts of heavy and toxic elements in it) there may be some cautions which have to be taken for the time being while using Fly Ash in agriculture. From the information available till now, there appears to be not much ground for concern on these accounts (heavy metals, radioactivity etc) however further confirmatory studies at the ICAR centers would be helpful in bringing out recommendations in this field. Meanwhile there appears to be sufficient ground now for the cautious and judicious use of this useful material, which is otherwise being wasted/ underutilized. References: Arthur, M.F., Zwick, T.C., Tolle, D.A., and Van Varis, P. (1984) Effects of flyash on microbial Co2 evolution from our agricultural soil. Water Air Soil Pollut., 22, 209. CAS Raichur(1997) Interim report Of Fly Ash Mission sponsored project “Utilization Of Fly Ash in Agriculture ” submitted to Fly Ash Mission Capp, J.P. (1978) Power Plant flyash utilisation for land reclamation in the eastern United States, in Reclamation of Drastically Disturbed Lands. Schaller, F.W. and Sutton, P., Eds., Sol. Sci. Soc. of Am., Madison, WI, 339. Central Fuel Research Institute, Dhanbad(1999) Draft report Of Fly Ash Mission sponsored project “Utilization Of Fly Ash in Agriculture ” submitted to Fly Ash Mission Ciravolo, T.G. and Adriano, D.C. (1979) Utilisation of Coal ash by crops under green house conditions, in Ecology and Coal Resources Development, Wali, M.,Ed., Pergamon Press, New York, 958. Chang, A.C., Lund, L.J., Page, A.L. and Warneke, J.E. (1977) Physical properties of flyash amended soils. J. Environ Qual. 6(3), 267. Eisenbud, M.and Petrow, H.C. (1964) Radioactivity in the atmospheric effluents of power palnts that use fossil fuel. Science 144, 288. Elseewi, A.A., Binghman, F.T. and Page, A.L.(1978) Growth and mineral composition of lettuce and swiss chard grown on flyash amended soils, in Environmental Chemistry and Cycling processes, Conf. 760429, Adriano, D.C. and Brisbin, I.L.,Eds., U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA, 568. Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University (1999). Interim Report of Fly Ash Mission sponsored project “Selected Technology Project for Fly Ash Disposal and Utilization in Agriculture” (10-03). Fail, J.L. amd Wochok, Z.S. (1977) Soyabean growth on flyash amended strip mine soils. Palnt Soil, 48, 473. Gowiak, B.J. and Pacyna, J.M. (1980) Radiation dose due to atmospheric releases from coal-fired power stations. Int.J. Environ. Stud. 16,23. Gralloway, J.N., Likens, G.E. and Edgeston, E.S.(1976) Acid rain precipitation in the north eastern United States; pH and acidity, Science 194, 722, IIT Kharagpur (1999) Draft report Of Fly Ash Mission sponsored project ” Utilisation Of Fly Ash And Organic Wastes In Restoration Of Crop Land Ecosystem ” submitted to Fly Ash Mission Jastrow, J.D., Zimmerman, C.A., Dvorak, A.J. and Hinchman, R.R.(1979) Comparison of Lime and Flyash as Amendments to Acidic Coal Mine Refuse: Growth Responses and Trace Element Uptake of Two Grasses. Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, 43. Kumar, V. (1996) Fly Ash Utilisation: A Mission Mode Approach in Ash Ponds and Ash disposal Systems. Raju, V.S., Dutta, M., Seshadri, V., Agarwal, V.K. & Kumar, V., Eds. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, 365. Kumar V, Goswami G and Zacharia K A (1999). Fly Ash: Its Influence on Soil Properties. Indian Society Soil Sciences Workshop, 18-21st October 1999, Calcutta Kumar V, Goswami G and Zacharia K A (1998). Fly Ash Use in Agriculture: Issues & Concern. International Conference on Fly Ash Disposal & Utilisation, 20-22nd January, New Delhi. Natusch, D.F.S. (1975) Characteristics of pollutants from coal combustion and conversion process, in Toxic Effects on the Aquatic Biota from Coal and Oil Shale Development, Quarterly Progress Rep. Oct.- Dec., Natural Resources Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, 73, 1975. Padmakaran, P. et.al.(1994) Fly ash and its utilisation in industry and agricultural land development. Research & Industry, 40, 244-250. Page, A.L., Elseewi, A.A. and Straughan, I.R. (1979) Physical and Chemical Properties of flyash from coal-fired plants with reference to environmental impacts. Residue Rev., 7, 83. Page, A.L., Elseewi, A.A., Lund, L.J., Bradford, G.R., Mattigod, S., Chang, A.C. and Bingham, F.T. (1980) Consequences of Trace Element Enrichment of Soils and Vegetation from the Combustion of Fuels Used in Power Generation. University of Claifornia, Riverside, 158. Phung, H.T., Lund, I.J. and Page, A.L. (1978) Potential use of flyash as a liming material in Environmental Chemistry and Cycling Processes, Conf. 760429, Adriano, D.C. and Brisbin, I.L., Eds. U.S. Department of Energy, 504. Punjab Agriculture University (1993) Utilisation of flyash in agriculture and revegetation of dumping sites. Annual progress report. Rohriman, F.A.(1971) Analysing the effect of flyash on water pollution. Power, 115, 76. RRL Bhopal (1999) Interim report Of Fly Ash Mission sponsored project “Long Term Effect Of Fly Ash On Soil Fertility And Crop Yield” submitted to Fly Ash Mission Sharma, S. et.al. (1989) Flyash dynamics in soil-water systems. Critical Reviews in Environmental Control 19(3), 251-275. Townsend, W.N. and Gillham, E.W.F. (1975) Pulverised fuel ash as a medium for plant growth, in The Ecology and Resource Degradation and Renewal, Chadwick, M.L. and Goodman, G.T., Eds., Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, 287. Vijayan, V. & Ramamurthy, V.S. (1995) Measurement of indoor radon levels in Bhubaneshwar. Bulletin of Radiation Protection, vol (18) No. 1 & 2. Zacharia, K.A.; Kumar, V. & Velayutham, M. (1996) Fly Ash Utilisation in agriculture towards a holistic approach. National Seminar on Fly Ash Utilisation, Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited, Neyveli.

Construction Sealants

Construction Sealants

Naturally occurring bitumen and asphalt materials have been widely accepted as sealants for centuries. Prior to the 1900’s most sealants evolved from vegetable, animal, or mineral substances. The development of modern polymeric sealants coincided with the development of the polymer industry itself, sometime in the early 1930’s.

Joint sealants are used to seal joints and openings (gaps) between two or more substrates, and are a critical component for building construction and design. The main purpose of sealants is to prevent air, water, and other environmental elements from entering or exiting a structure while permitting limited movement of the substrates. Specialty sealants are used for special applications, such as fire stops, electrical, or thermal insulation.

When joints fail, leaks and damage to buildings follow. Sealants can help ensure that your buildings stay tight and dry. Modern commercial structures rely heavily on sealants to prevent water damage to buildings and their contents. While residential buildings utilize water shedding techniques such as sloped roofs, lap siding, and overlapping flashings, many commercials designs do not; if a joint fails, there is little or no barrier to leakage. Unfortunately, in today’s building environment, there are many points in the design and construction processes where bad judgment or bad behavior results in sealant failure.

Exterior Most modern homogenous rigid exterior substrates are purposely jointed to allow movement without damage to the material. The two principal causes of movement are thermal expansion and contraction and seismic movement.

The principal exterior substrates that are sealed are:

exterior wall joints ( masonry, concrete, stucco / plaster, EIFS)

door and window frames

concrete paving joints

metal flashings

roof joints

seismic joints

Interior Joints indoors do not normally go through the thermal expansion and contraction that exteriors do, but they are jointed for other reasons. Gypsum board and plaster assemblies, for instance, often require control joints to prevent cracking. Interior joints are usually sealed to keep out dirt and look better. The principal interior substrates that are sealed are:

gypsum board

plaster

floor control and expansion joints

kitchen and bathroom wet joints

Alan Trauger is a Building Consultant that performs property condition assessments for residential and commercial properties. An experienced and knowledgeable problem solver, understanding processes and issues related to building structures and their systems. An expert witness, trainer, and educator.

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